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한국과학사학회지, 제43권 제1호 (2021), 143-174

(기획) 집체(集體)의 가축을 위한 침술의 과학: 마오쩌둥 시기 중수의학의 탄생, 1956-1963

by 이종식
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초록 This article explores Maoist China’s project of the “Integration of Chinese and Western Veterinary Medicines,” focusing on how folk veterinary knowledge and practices were “scientized” and transformed into a new hybrid science called “Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine” in 1956-1963. Engaging with the literature on socialist science and the PRC history, it shows that a group of Western-trained veterinary scientists, veterinary cadres, and folk veterinary masters, or “TCVM pioneers,” rather than the CCP itself, took a proactive role in this project. I also examine similarities and differences between the construction of TCM and that of TCVM, arguing that the demand that TCVM as an empirical, applied science must serve the socialist collective agriculture shaped the latter in a distinctive way. This article emphasizes that TCVM’s therapeutic efficacy was “scientifically” verified through a particular experimental design that embraced both “Chinese” and “Western” elements. These findings urge us to see the history of science in socialist China without normalizing the Eurocentric and “diffusionist” narrative nor propagating the Sinocentric and Han nationalistic counternarrative. In this vein, this case study provides a way of understanding the “scientific,” “Chinese,” “modern,” and “traditional” in the framework of global history of science.
주요어 Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine (TCVM), integration of Chinese and Western veterinary medicines, modernization of traditional knowledge, agricultural collectivization, western veterinary scientists, communist veterinary cadres, folk veterinarians

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