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한국과학사학회지, 제41권 제1호 (2019), 39-71

(기획) 수학자가 참여한 17세기의 과학적 전쟁

by 정원
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초록 Early modern Europe went through two distinct types of revolution — scientific and military. Military historians have employed the term, Military Revolution, to account for several significant changes in the seventeenth century, such as advent of new weapons, enlargement of military forces, and extension of battle length. Under these circumstances, it is reasonable to assume a certain degree of correlation between the Scientific Revolution and the Military Revolution, both of which took place in the same place at the same time. This paper features Maurits van Nassau and Simon Stevin to show the interactions between two revolutions. They were patron and client in private, and general and officer in public. Maurits is considered to have brought about the Military Revolution, while Stevin is valued highly as a mathematician that invented decimal fraction system and laid the foundation for the new mathematics through innovating traditional number concept. Maurits is well-known for the ‘scientific war,’ particularly the scientific siege warfare. I suggest that his scientific wars were carried out through systematic deployment of armed forces, detection of the weakest point based on mathematical analysis, calculation of safe attacking routes, and intensive attack on target points. Stevin’s publications on the art of war will show how much they influenced on Maurits’ strategies and tactics. This shows that the clear correlation between science and war, characterized by goal-driven research for warfare tactics, elevated social status of relevant scientists, and strong recognition of victor nations as the centre of science, already started slowly in the seventeenth century.
주요어 Italian fortress, Maurits van Nassau, mathematics, scientific war fare, Simon Stevin, the Military Revolution

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